New Randomized Controlled Trial: Vitamin D Helps in Depression

A new randomized controlled trial out of Iran and published in the Journal of Clinical Psychopharmacology reports that vitamin D may help depression.

Past research has shown a definite association between low vitamin D levels and depression. However, clinical trials have shown mixed results, thus raising need for further research. The researchers in this study led by Dr Hassan Mozaffari-Khosravi wanted to know if a single injection of vitamin D could help improve symptoms in those who suffered from mild to moderate depression.

One-hundred and twenty people were recruited from specialist clinics at Yazd Shahid Sadoughi University of Medical Sciences and enrolled into the study. They only enrolled people between the ages of 20 to 60, had presented depression at specialist clinics, scored higher than a 17 on the Beck Depression Inventory II test (BDI) and had a vitamin D level lower than 16 ng/ml.

The BDI is a 63 point self-assess scale, with a score of 63 indicating severe depression, a score of 0 indicating no depressive symptoms. Scores in the range of 11-16 indicate mild depression, while scores 17-20 indicate the need for psychological consultation, so all participants scored at least just above mild depression.

The researchers evenly divided the participants into three groups. One group to receive a single shot of 300,000 IU of vitamin D (300k), another group to receive a single shot of 150,000 IU (150k) and another group to receive nothing, serving as a control group. The third group did not receive a fake shot, so this was not a double blind study, just a randomized controlled trial.

Here were the baseline findings:

  • Mean vitamin D levels were very low. The mean level was 10.1 ng/ml in the control group, 9.2 ng/ml in the 150k group, and 8.5 ng/ml in the 300k group.
  • Mean BDI scores were similar among groups, ranging from 26.4 to 27.5.

The researchers then administered the vitamin D. After three months, the researchers had participants take the BDI again to assess depression to see if improved vitamin D levels helped at all. Here is what they found:

  • Mean vitamin D levels increased to 24 ng/ml in the 300k group, 21.8 ng/ml in the 150k group and stayed low in the control group at 11.3 ng/ml.
  • The severity of depression improved in all groups, as assessed by decreasing BDI. However, the 300k group improved the most.
  • BDI decreased by 9.3 points in the 300k group (26.7 to 17.4).
  • BDI decreased by 6.8 points in the 150k group (27.5 to 20.6).
  • BDI decreased by 2.1 points in the control group (26.4 to 24.3).

The difference in BDI decrease between the 300k group and the 150k group and the difference in BDI decrease between the 150k group and the control group was not statistically significant. However, the difference in BDI decrease between the 300k group and the control group was statistically significant, suggesting that vitamin D may have had an effect in improving depression.

The authors conclude,

“The findings of this study showed that first, vitamin D deficiency in patients with depression has a high prevalence; second, the correction of vitamin deficiency improves depression in these patients; and third, the single dose of 300,000 IU of vitamin D is safe and more effective than 150,000 IU.”

The greatest limitation in this study was that the trial wasn’t double blinded, so we don’t know if there was an extended placebo effect in the people that received shots compared to the control group that didn’t However, the fact that the 300,000 IU vitamin D group showed statistically significant improvement in depression over the control group and the 150,000 IU group did not, hints that the vitamin D shots were not just a placebo effect and that the more vitamin D administered, the better the improvement.

There were some strengths in this study compared to previous randomized controlled trials looking at vitamin D and depression. In a study out of Norway last year, researchers wanted to see if 40,000 IU/week improved depression and found that it didn’t. However, their participants for the most part did not suffer from depression. They also used the BDI scale and found the median participant started at only 4 points, compared to the mean of about 27 points in this Iranian study. Thus, there were few depressive symptoms to improve upon in the Norway study. In this Iranian study, participants suffered from mild to moderate depression, so there was much more room for improvement.

The Vitamin D Council does not recommend the use of single loading doses like the ones used in this study. After three months, vitamin D levels were still low in the 300,000 IU group. Rather, the Vitamin D Council recommends use of daily maintenance doses of 5,000 IU/day in adults to achieve levels of 50 ng/ml. Please see our ‘How do I get the vitamin D my body needs’ page for more information.

Also visit our patient friendly summary on depression for an overview on the subject. Note that the summary is a little outdated now, as there have been a couple of trials on depression and vitamin D since we last updated it.

Mozaffari Khosravi H, et al. The Effect of 2 Different Single Injections of High Dose of Vitamin D on Improving the Depression in Depressed Patients With Vitamin D Deficiency: A Randomized Controlled Trial. J Clin Psychopharm 2013.

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Do Fruits and Vegetables Help Keep Your Brain Young?

Eating ample servings of fruit and vegetables every day is proven strategy for long-term health, one that may even help us live longer, according to large populations studies that have uncovered a direct connection between the numbers of daily servings consumed and the risk of mortality in various groups of people. In the search for understanding how fruit and vegetables work to protect health, research has zeroed in on natural compounds found in fruit and vegetables called “flavonoids.” Flavonoids are phytonutrients (“phyto” means “plant”) that exert protective effects on the heart and cardiovascular systems.

The health benefits of generous fruit and vegetable intakes extend to preserving cognitive function in the elderly, as shown in a prospective population study published in the American Journal of Epidemiology. Epidemiological research studies the incidence of diseases in population groups to identify possible causes or protective factors. The PAQUID study of 1640 subjects aged 65 and older looked at the intake of flavonoids in relation to cognitive function and decline. Standardized tests of cognitive function were utilized in the investigation. The subjects were divided into quartiles (fourths) based on the amount of flavonoids consumed daily from food, chiefly fruits and vegetables, over a 10-year period. Subjects with the lowest flavonoid intake lost twice as many points on the Mini-Mental State Examination. Those in the top two quartiles “performed significantly better over time than did subjects in the lowest quartile,” according to the report.

How flavonoids work in the body may help explain why eating multiple daily servings of fruit and vegetables is so good for us. “Flavonoids are powerful antioxidant molecules,” the report states, a fact established in other research papers. Antioxidants helps neutralize byproducts of metabolism called “free radicals” that can damage cells if they get out of control. The body has enzyme systems for dealing with free radicals, but these can slow down as we age, leaving us more vulnerable to free radical damage.

When we were kids, Mom told us to eat our vegetables; it’s now our responsibility to give our loved ones that same advice as they grow older. Young or old, however, it can be a real challenge to keep up with the standard recommendation to eat five or more servings of fruit and vegetables every day without fail. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), estimates the average number of daily servings eaten by Americans at only 1.6 for veggies and 1.1 for fruit. Taking a dietary supplement that includes concentrates of fruit and vegetables is one way consumers are helping meet the shortfall. The demand for “green food” supplements with organic vegetable and fruits continues to increase as consumers follow this emerging lifestyle trend.

Letenneur L, et al. Flavonoid intake and cognitive decline over a 10-year period. Am J Epidemiol 2007;165(12):1364-71.

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Trouble sleeping? Consider these snooze-friendly foods

Is there anything worse than waking up after a night of no sleep? How about going to work or school with barely an hour of shuteye from the previous night? No matter how you look at it, poor sleep habits can lead to a number of physical and neurological problems – ranging from decreased cardiovascular health, stress management and even weight loss difficulties. Increased exercise is one way to help catch some more Zzzs, but you might also want to
consider incorporating some of these snooze-friendly foods into your regular diet.

Tea isn’t exactly the first thing you would think of as a sleep aid – especially considering how much caffeine is contained inside. However, notes that many decaf varities – particularly chamomile and green teas – can help you fall asleep more easily. Green tea actually possess a substance known as theanine, which may assist with better sleep habits.

Got a soft spot for cherries? Well, this delicious fruit can also offer a helping hand when it comes to falling asleep each night. notes that fresh cherries are a great natural source of melatonin, a substance that may be able to promote a more restful night’s sleep.

Not just a quick breakfast, bananas may also be beneficial as a snack right before bed, according to the Huffington Post. The reason is twofold – bananas are sources of both magnesium and potassium. Magnesium may aid the body in relaxing nerves and muscles, while potassium can do the same, on top of promoting better blood circulation and digestion.

That old idea of drinking a warm glass of milk before bed might not be so far off the mark. reports that dairy products that are packed with calcium can be great sleep aids. Calcium may be able to reduce stress levels, relax the body and calm the mind for a better night’s sleep. This goes for milk and yogurt as well.

Eating habits
Beyond eating the right foods, it’s important to follow healthy dietary habits to enjoy a good night’s sleep, reports In particular, you should avoid gorging on snacks right before bed, as this can make it more difficult to fall asleep. Alternately, you shouldn’t go to bed hungry either, so choose pre-bedtime snacks that are light and won’t hurt your stomach. The source also suggests sticking with familiar foods at night so you don’t have an unexpectedly poor reaction to what you’re eating.


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Experts Recommend More Omega-3s

Despite recommendations from most recognized health experts, many people in the U.S. continue to eat low levels of omega-3 fatty acids in their normal diets. Instead they opt for foods that contain less healthy fats, like saturated fats and trans fats.

According to the Detroit Free Press, experts say that omega-3s support healthy heart function, while most other types of fats have the opposite effect. This is why consuming nothing but processed foods and beef can have such a damage impact on heart health.

Instead of the normal Western-style diet, eating more fish can be one of the most effective ways to get higher levels of omega-3s into a diet. Experts recommend fatty saltwater fish like swordfish or salmon. These varieties of fish have some of the highest levels of the nutrient.

One of the reasons why it is so important to consume omega-3s as part of a healthy diet is because the human body cannot make the nutrient itself. Unlike vitamin D or many other types of nutrients, which the body can produce naturally, the only way to get the benefits of omega-3s is through diet. Therefore, adding it to a diet or taking nutritional supplements is critical.

“There is substantial evidence to suggest that our levels of omega-3 essential fatty acids may be the most potent cardio-protective factors in the human diet,” said Harvard researcher William Butler. “Optimal omega-3 intake can have a profound effect in safely reducing the risk of cardiac disease and promoting health in men, women and children of all ages.”

Despite the many health benefits of omega-3 fatty acids, relatively few people are aware of the important role that they play in their health. Even fewer actually make efforts to incorporate foods containing these nutrients into their diets.

In order to remedy the situation, a group of nutrition researchers recently decided to celebrate an International Omega-3 Awareness Day this week. Officials said that the event is important for helping people understand how critical omega-3s are to their health.
Officials added that studies have shown a high percentage of the people in the U.S. are omega-3 deficient. This contributes to an unnecessarily high rate of disease. They said that inspiring people to consume more of the nutrient could be a major public health victory.

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Magnesium Helps Seniors Keep Muscles Strong

We generally think about muscle strength and performance as a matter of concern for athletes, weekend warriors, folks who work out and anyone just wanting to stay in shape. For seniors however, muscle health and strength is even more important as a health issue. With aging, everyone loses muscle mass and strength to one degree or another, especially as we become less active. Loss of muscle can lead to bone loss, increase the risk of injury and even impair immune function.

Can anything be done to put the brakes on muscle loss? Good nutrition is essential: for starters, adequate intakes of quality protein. Daily mineral intake is another imperative, with special attention to magnesium. It’s common knowledge that magnesium, along with calcium, is important for healthy bones. Magnesium is also required for muscles.

The value of magnesium as a nutritional factor for muscle strength in seniors is underscored in a study published in the American Journal of Clinical Nutrition. The “INCHIANTI” study, which examined risk factors for late-life disability, found a direct relationship between low blood levels of magnesium and muscle performance in older subjects. Grip strength, lower leg muscle power, knee extension and ankle extension were significantly better in subjects with higher magnesium levels. In view of this, taking a magnesium supplement—a safe, low-cost nutritional strategy—is a good recommendation for seniors, especially when the daily diet lacks generous helpings of magnesium-rich foods.

Dominguez LJ, et al. Magnesium and muscle performance in older persons: the InCHIANTI study. Am J Clin Nutr 2006;84:419 –26.

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Creatine Builds Muscle, Increases Lean Body Mass, in All Age Groups

Creatine is high on the top-ten list of evidence-based dietary supplements used by athletes and body builders to enhance performance, muscle power and fitness. The science behind creatine is as impressive as its popularity. The benefits of creatine are scientifically validated by a research portfolio replete with published reports and clinical trials.

The exciting news is that creatine is not just for the young. The latest research shows that men and women of all ages can benefit from using creatine to support muscle strength. While the average person over fifty may not be looking to participate in a weight-lifting competition, maintaining muscular fitness is vitally important as we age and a key factor for healthy longevity. Studies have examined the effects of creatine in older men and women and the findings are compelling. Creatine may be one of the most effective supplements for keeping physically and mentally fit throughout life.

In a double-blind, placebo-controlled, twenty-eight men and women, over age 65, took part in a whole-body resistance exercise program 3 days a week while taking either creatine or a placebo. The researchers measured total body mass and lean body mass along with strength of various body parts. The creatine and placebo groups had improvements in measurements of strength and performance of functional tasks, which is not surprising since exercise helps keep you strong and fit. But only the creatine group showed increases in total body and fat-free mass. The report concluded that “The addition of creatine supplementation to the exercise stimulus enhanced the increase in total and fat-free mass, and gains in several indices of isometric muscle strength.”

Reference: Brose A, Parise G, Tarnopolsky MA. Creatine supplementation enhances isometric strength and body composition improvements following strength exercise training in older adults. J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci. 2003 Jan;58(1):11-9.

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Feed Your Brain with Astaxanthin

Astaxanthin may not be a familiar name, although you consume a little any time you eat salmon. Astaxanthin is a carotene – carotenes are natural pigments, similar in molecular structure to the more familiar beta carotene that colors carrots and other vegetables and fruits. Astaxanthin gives salmon its distinctive reddish hue, but it does much more: astaxanthin works as powerful antioxidant in plant and animal cells, which translates into a broad range of beneficial effects on cellular function. Astaxanthin, as shown in a growing body of research studies, published in peer-reviewed scientific journals, is even more potent and versatile than its carotene cousins.

Like beta carotene, astaxanthin is good for the eyes, the skin and other tissues where antioxidants are needed. Recent studies point to astaxanthin as a nutrient for the brain. An in-vitro (test-tube) study reported to the International Congress of Nutrition and published in the journal Forum of Nutrition, SH-SY5Y cells, which are used in experimental models of neuron function, were bathed in astaxanthin and then exposed to chemicals that cause “oxidative stress” in cells. (Antioxidants are substances that counter oxidative stress in biological systems, hence the term “antioxidant.”) Astaxanthin successfully protected the treated cells from damage. Based on this, and previous research showing that astaxanthin is capable of crossing over from the bloodstream into the brain, the report suggests that “pre-treatment with astaxanthin may be effective for oxidative-stress associated neurodegeneration and a potential candidate for natural brain food.

High quality natural Astaxanthin from Haematococcus pluvialis, grown under controlled conditions to ensure purity and safety, is available as a supplement in the US.

Liu X, Osawa T. Astaxanthin protects neuronal cells against oxidative damage and is a potent candidate for brain food. Forum Nutr. 2009;61:129-35.

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Fruits and Veggies – Do You Get Your 5-a-Day?

Fruits and Vegetables – Do You Get Your “5-a-Day”? If not OJC Can fill the Gaps

Five a day, every day. That’s the widely accepted goal for the number of fruit and vegetable servings we should eat every day. With ever-mounting scientific evidence about the many health benefits of fruits and vegetables, gleaned from a plethora of research studies, government agencies and health experts are on the same page. While recommendations vary somewhat for different age groups, a good rule of thumb is that we should aim for two to three servings of both fruits and vegetables. And this should be a daily dietary practice, not something we do once or twice a week, or when we get around to it.

Here’s a sampling of government recommendations for daily consumption of veggies and fruit:
• USDA (United States Department of Agriculture)—Veggies: 2-3 cups. Fruit: 1½-2 cups.
•—Veggies: 4 servings (1 serving = ½ cup cooked). Fruit: 3 servings (1 serving = 1½- cup cooked, canned or chopped fruit, or 1 medium apple, banana, orange or pear).
• CDC (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention)—Veggies: 2½-3 cups. Fruit 1½-2 cups.
• Health Canada—Veggies and Fruits: 7-8 servings for teens and adults.

Health Canada’s recommendation lines up with a recent analysis of data form the 2001-2008 Health Surveys for England. This large-scale population study of 65,226 people found a strong connection between intakes for fruit and vegetables and longevity. Eating more than 2-3 servings a day increased the likelihood of living longer, with the greatest benefit realized at seven servings.

Just how well are we doing at following these dietary guidelines? The sobering truth is not good news. According to the CDC, the average number of daily servings eaten by Americans is a mere 1.6 for veggies and 1.1 for fruit. Most of us are clearly falling far short of the mark. Realistically, it can be a challenge to keep up, day in and day out. Maybe we’re dieting, skip meals or frankly don’t have the time.

There’s help from Purity Products! You can use Purity’s OJC Greens to fill the gap. OJC brings farm fresh organic fruits and veggies right to your door with a diverse array of health-fueling phytonutrients, all in one, easy to take, certified organic greens drink. Organic Juice Cleanse is power-packed with dozens of organic, nutrient-rich fruit and vegetable concentrates. Just mix a tablespoon of Organic Juice Cleanse powder in eight ounces of pure water and drink. When you’re in a hurry, on the go, at the office and just about anywhere else … nourish your body with a serving of Organic Juice Cleanse and relax, knowing that you’re a long way toward crossing the goal post for fruit and vegetable intake.

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More Health Benefits of Pycnogenol

Health Benefits of Pycnogenol

Happy Blood Vessels and Well-Supported Peripheral Circulation

The circulation in the lower limbs can be effected over time as a result of free radical damage to the walls and valves of healthy arteries and veins. This may result in inefficient flow through these vessels back to the heart and throughout the body. The supply of oxygen and nutrients to the tissues may be disrupted and affecting the body’s natural healing abilities.

Pycnogenol’s antioxidants absorb and quench free radical electrons with great efficiency and can vastly maintain the resistance of small blood vessels and capillaries throughout the body to oxidative damage. The results of human clinical trials published recently in Angiology4 and Clinical Applications in Thrombosis and Hemostasis5 showed clear improvements in the ability of veins to expand and dilate, and blood flow and nutrient delivery to the lower legs with the consumption of 50 mg of Pycnogenol three times daily for 4 to 6 weeks.

Further research shows that dietary supplementation with 150 mg of Pycnogenol daily promotes optimal microcirculation in capillary networks of the lower legs in men and women.6 A recently published study also found that taking 200 mg of Pycnogenol daily was effective for reducing muscle cramps in healthy adults who experienced occasional cramps while consuming placebo.7 These researchers yet again confirmed previous findings that consuming Pycnogenol daily facilitates healthy blood flow and nutrient supply throughout the body.

Stay Healthy in the Air

Prolonged air travel has been associated with cardiovascular issues caused by inactivity (sitting in one place for extended periods of time) and dehydration.8 Compression of veins by the edge of a seat could contribute to slowing of venous return of blood to the heart and pooling of fluid in the lower legs. Dehydration in an aircraft cabin also can cause some swelling in the lower legs. The inability to move freely combined with the subnormal air pressure and oxygen content within an airplane can also interfere with healthy circulation. Long airplane flights are especially concerning because of their prolonged nature and potential to have a greater impact on cardiovascular health.

Effective preventive measures while traveling include standing and stretching exercises, drinking copious amounts of water, and avoidance of tightly-fitting clothes, salty foods and alcoholic beverages.

Dietary supplementation with Pycnogenol, which is rich in veno-supportive nutrients, can be highly beneficial. The results of a placebo-controlled clinical trial published recently in Clinical Applications in Thrombosis and Hemostasis suggest that every traveler should add Pycnogenol to their travel preparations. In this study, 200 mg of Pycnogenol or of placebo were consumed 2 to 3 hours before take-off and again after 6 hours in the air.8 As opposed to the placebo, Pycnogenol was found to be highly supportive of venous circulation during the flights – an indication that Pycnogenol promoted circulation while supporting healthy vascular function within the adverse environment of an aircraft at high altitude for many hours.

Pay Attention, Please!

Several studies in recent years have looked at Pycnogenol’s ability to support cognitive function, mood, and attention and concentration. A double-blind, placebo controlled pilot study was conducted in which 61 children aged six to fourteen years were given a daily dosage of 1 mg of Pycnogenol per kilogram body weight or a placebo for four weeks.9 The researchers found that Pycnogenol intake for one month significantly enhanced concentration and attentiveness in these children. Scientists have suggested that these effects may be due to the antioxidant activity of Pycnogenol and may also be a result of Pycnogenol’s ability to enhance the production of nitric oxide, a molecule that supports increased circulation through arteries and veins, thus making it easier for nutrients to reach organs and systems, including brain tissue. In fact, further research on Pycnogenol in children found that the same dose (1 mg per kilogram body weight) given over a one-month period increased total antioxidant status and was able to induce a highly significant increase in the level of reduced to oxidized glutathione in the blood.10 As is widely known, glutathione is one of the most abundant antioxidants in cells throughout the body. What is interesting is that research shows that the lower the intracellular glutathione concentrations go, the faster cells (and hence tissues!) age. Glutathione is the key antioxidant protector of proteins, fats and DNA in cells. Maintaining glutathione concentrations in cells is critical for healthy aging. Even more important is ensuring that there is a healthy balance of the reduced glutathione to oxidized glutathione. The reduced form is crucial for glutathione’s free-radical scavenging capability. Pycnogenol recycles glutathione and keeps more of it in the free-radical attacking reduced form.

Pycnogenol also has shown the ability to support memory function in the elderly. A study published in the Journal of Psychopharmacology highlighted research looking into the effects of Pycnogenol supplementation over a three-month period on cognitive function and memory.11 In this placebo-controlled trial, healthy elderly individuals were asked to take Pycnogenol at a daily dose of 150 mg per day or placebo. The results of the trial showed significant benefits in memory function in the Pycnogenol group after 3 months, indicating Pycnogenol’s beneficial effect on cognitive function. Once again, researchers attribute this benefit of Pycnogenol to its powerful antioxidant functions and its ability to protect brain cells from free radical damage.

Tree Bark and Human Health – Strong Links

Pycnogenol – the unique water extract from the French maritime pine tree – has numerous tonic effects for the human body. This well-researched product deserves to be included as a core component of everyone’s health and wellness armamentarium. Pycnogenol reinforces the establishment of a healthy balance between oxidative stress and antioxidant capacity throughout the body. By doing so, Pycnogenol is a strong and potent ally of visual health, vascular health, immune wellness and in the management of the inflammatory response, cognitive function and memory, and as a key nutrient for Healthy Aging.

4. Belcaro G, Cesarone MR, Errichi BM, Ledda A, Di Renzo A, Stuard S, Dugall M, Pellegrini L, Rohdewald P, Ippolito E, Ricci A, Cacchio M, Ruffini I, Fano F, Hosoi M. Venous ulcers: Microcirculatory improvement and faster healing with local use of Pycnogenol. Angiology 2005;56:699-705.
5. Cesarone MR, Belcaro G, Rohdewald P, Pellegrini L, Ledda A, Vinciguerra G, Ricci A, Gizzi G, Ippolito E, Fano F, Dugall M, Acerbi G, Cacchio M, Di Renzo A, Hosoi M, Stuard S, Corsi M. Comparison of Pycnogenol and Daflon in treating chronic venous insufficiency: A prospective, controlled study. Clin Appl Thromb Hemost 2006;12:205- 212.
6. G. Belcaro, M. R. Cesarone, B. M. Errichi, A. Ledda, A. Di Renzo, S. Stuard, M. Dugall, L. Pellegrini, G. Gizzi, P. Rohdewald, E. Ippolito, A. Ricci, M. Cacchio, G. Cipollone, I. Ruffini, F. Fano, M. Hosoi. Diabetic ulcers: Microcirculatory improvement and faster healing with Pycnogenol. Clin Appl Thromb Hem 2006;12:318-323.
7. Vinciguerra G, Belcaro G, Cesarone MR, Rohdewald P, Stuard S, Ricci A, Di Renzo A, Hosoi M, Dugall M, Ledda A, Cacchio M, Acerbi G, Fano F. Cramps and muscular pain: Prevention with pycnogenol in normal subjects, venous patients, athletes, claudicants and in diabetic microangiopathy. Angiology 2006;57:331-339.
8. Cesarone MR, Belcaro G, Rohdewald P, Pellegrini L, Ippolito E, Scoccianti M, Ricci A, Dugall M, Cacchio M, Ruffini I, Fano F, Acerbi G, Vinciguerra MG, Bavera P, Di Renzo A, Errichi BM, Mucci F. Prevention of edema in long flights with Pycnogenol. Clin Appl Thromb Hemost 2005;11:289-294.
9. Trebatická J, Kopasová S, Hradecná Z, Cinovský K, Skodácek I, Suba J, Muchová J, Zitnanová I, Waczulíková I, Rohdewald P, Duracková Z. Treatment of ADHD with French maritime pine bark extract, Pycnogenol. Eur Child Adolesc Psychiatry. 2006;15(6):329-35.
10. Dvoráková M, Sivonová M, Trebatická J, Skodácek I, Waczuliková I, Muchová J, Duracková Z. The effect of polyphenolic extract from pine bark, Pycnogenol on the level of glutathione in children suffering from attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD).Redox Rep. 2006;11(4):163-72.
11. Ryan J, Croft K, Mori T, Wesnes K, Spong J, Downey L, Kure C, Lloyd J, Stough C. An examination of the effects of the antioxidant Pycnogenol on cognitive performance, serum lipid profile, endocrinological and oxidative stress biomarkers in an elderly population. J Psychopharmacol. 2008;22(5):553-62.

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